R.A.T.I.O.S.: Roleplaying And Tactics In One System
[Version #17 (3/18/97)]

Written by Scott J. Compton
Copyright March 1997.
All Rights Reserved.

This game is free to the public, but is copyrighted under the laws
of the United States.  You have the author's permission to use
RATIOS for your own private use and to pass it along to others free
(without exchange of money).  To get an official hardcopy of this
game, contact Fractal Dimensions, INC., 17-29 Main Street, Suite
316, Cortland, NY 13045.  You may also contact Fractal Dimensions
electronically (fractal@fractal.mandarin.org) or personally e-mail
the author (who is also the author of SORD: The System Of Role
Development) at the address sord@earthlink.net.

RATIOS is a quick little universal system for players who love to
roleplay, but want a simple yet realistic engine for calculations. 
If you are not an experience gamer, you will feel that this is a
"loose" system that lacks depth of definition.  The design of the
game was stimulated by RPG War-simulated Chess: a gaming tool mini-
game that determines how battle works if "ratios" describe the ways
war was weighted between two sides.  

RATIOS gives the Game Master an elegant and simplistic system of
defining characters, modifying characters, creating opponents
against characters, having combat with a small number of character,
or having wars in great numbers.  RATIOS should answer any
situation or circumstance that might arise when roleplaying.  But
the greatest quality of RATIOS might be the fact that everything is
percentage or ratio-based, and the attribute system handles all
complications.  RATIOS gives you 26 attributes from A to Z, and
allows their full and realistic development.  All formulas for
RATIOS is listed in a chart at the back of the game before the
character sheet.  Just get yourself some percentage dice (2d10) and
away you go.

Table of Contents:

I. Character Creation Information
1a. The 26 Attribute Definitions
2a. The Basic Characteristics
3a. Levels and Achievements
4a. Cultures and Professions
5a. Capabilities
6a. Personality

II. RATIO Combat System
1b. Weapon Damage
2b. Weapon Attack Types
3b. Initiative Sequence
4b. Attack Sequence
5b. Special Circumstances
6b. Huge Combats

III. Formulas in RATIOS

Appendix A: RATIOS Character Sheet

I. Character Creation Information

1a. The 26 Attribute Definitions:
Most conventional RPGs often contain between 5-10 attributes. 
RATIOS is much different in that there are 26 Attributes (A through
Z).  RATIOS is anything but conventional; RATIOS gives you ultimate
balance, simplicity, and realism combined in a straight-forward and
easily applicable format.  With so many attributes, the reader
might question if a character can be broken down into so many parts
effectively.  I can assure the reader that each attribute is
significant because it represents a specific trait as well as a set
of skills that the character can use.  

A. Agility (AGIL): The character's conscious ability of
coordination and deftness from habit or repetition.  This attribute
does not decide the speed of the habit.  See Quickness and Balance. 
Example qualities include juggling and ambidexterity.  Makes up
one-fifth of the Defense %. (AGE:0-40).

B. Balance (BALN): The character's ability to maintain physical and
upright stability.  Example qualities include climbing and
tightrope walking.  Makes up one-fifth of the Defense %. (AGE:0-
C. Chance (CHNC): The ability and influence on opportunity to
succeed.  Example qualities include gambling, fishing, and
exploration.  Chance makes up one-third of the Initiative %.

D. Death (DETH): The character's core ability to resist death, when
all Health, Nourishment, or Vitality is lost.  Makes up one-third
of the Toughness number. (AGE:Any).

E. Emotion (EMOT): The ability to control, resist, or enhance an
emotion.  The emotional reaction makes one-third of the Initiative
%. (AGE:20-100).

F. Focus (FOCS): The character's ability to concentrate and to
gather personal energies for wielding powers.  Makes up one-fourth
of the Achievement Reduction Total. (AGE:Any).

G. Guile (GUIL): The character's strategic intellect and attack
capacity.  Makes up one-fifth of the Attack percentage.  (AGE:15
and up).  

H. Health (HLTH): Ability to withstand disease and the environment. 
See Recovery, Nourishment and Vitality.  Makes up one-third of the
Damage Status.  (AGE:0-50).  

I. Instinct (INST): The character's ability to non-actively
perceive something using the six senses (touch, taste, smell,
sound, sight, and ESP).  Makes up one-fifth of the Attack %.  See
Observation.  (AGE:0-20).

J. Judgment (JUDG): The character's ability to decipher if an
action or belief might have consequences.  Makes up one-fifth of
the Defense %. (AGE:Any).

K. Knowledge (KNOW): The capacity to recall a memory and the
character's overall education.  This attribute makes up one-fourth
of the Achievement Reduction Total.  (AGE:Any).

L. Language (LANG): The ability to speak, read, write, negotiate,
translate, and communicate in multiple languages and dialects. 

M. Movement (MOVE): The character's stride and aerobic capacity
based on body height and composition.  This attribute has an
initial bonus equal to the height, weight, and fat composition of
the character.  Each percentage of movement tells how many feet a
character can move in ten seconds on average.  Double the Movement
value is at maximum with a percentage check.  Movement is the only
skill that can exceed 100% with the Movement Bonus.  Also makes up
one-fifth of the Defense %. (AGE:0-50).

N. Nourishment (NRSH): The influence of sleep and nutrition upon
the character.  Makes up one-third of the Damage Status. (AGE:Any).

O. Observation (OBSR): The character's ability to consciously and
actively sense something.  Makes up one-fifth of the Attack %.  See
Instinct.  (AGE:Any).

P. Persuasion (PERS): The character's leadership skills and ability
to represent or convince a belief upon others.  (AGE:20-100).

Q. Quickness (QCKN): The character's unconscious ability to react
to something quickly.  Makes up one-third of the Initiative %.  See
Timing.  (AGE:0-25).

R. Recovery (RCVY): The ability to recover from the deprivation of
Health, Nourishment, or Vitality (i.e., the Damage Status). 

S. Strength (STRN): The character's ability to lift or apply force
to another object.  For every percentage point of Strength, the
character can bench press 10 pounds of weight at maximum.  For
brute-force behind melee or thrown weapon attacks, this ability
adds an extra percentage of damage.  Also makes up one-third of the
Toughness number.  In some settings, weapons could have a minimum
current Strength percentage requirement to fight with the weapon in
combat without penalty to the Attack %.  (AGE:10-30).

T. Timing (TMNG): Ability to consciously do something at a desired,
exact moment.  See Quickness and Agility.  Makes up one-fifth of
the Attack %. (AGE:0-50).

U. Unconsciousness (UNCN): The character's ability to resist going
unconscious, when the character's Damage Status is below 10% or
when the character is hit to the head.  Also makes up one-third of
the Toughness number. (AGE:Any).

V. Vitality (VTLY): The ability to withstand physical damage. 
Makes up one-third of the Damage Status.  (AGE:Any).

W. Work (WORK): The character's level of proficiency at completing
something.  This attribute makes up one-fourth of the Achievement
Reduction Total.  (AGE:Any).

X. Xperience (XPER): The character's creative ability to apply what
has possibly been learned to a new circumstance.  This attribute
makes up one-fourth of the Achievement Reduction Total.  (AGE:Any).

Y. Yearning (YERN): The character's mental desire and will to
resist or accomplish something.  Makes up one-fifth of the Attack
%. (AGE:Any).

Z. Zeal (ZEAL): The character's spiritual ambition to resist or
accomplish something.  This attribute makes up one-fifth of the
Defense %.  (AGE:Any).

Attributes have a Maximum Percentage Value (MPV) and a Current
Percentage Value (CPV).  At best, the CPV can equal the MPV.  CPVs
can be reduced based on situation-based modifiers.  On a whim, the
Game Master might give a penalty or bonus modifier to any CPV due
to the circumstance.  The MPV (and of course the CPV) can never
equal or exceed 100% nor can the MPV equal or fall below 0%, except
for the Movement Attribute.  Due to the Movement bonus and
Encumbrance percentages, the Movement percentage could equal zero
(means that the character cannot move) or exceed 100%.

When a player creates a new character, all MPVs start at 1%. 
Optionally, a Game Master might set all MPVs at a higher starting
value such as 10%.  The Maximum Percentage Values are a semi-
permanent and increase with Age and Levels.  Since all characters
start at the 0th Level, the only factors that can influence the
MVPs of the 26 Attributes are Age, Culture, Profession, and any
starting Levels if any.  In many cases, MPVs and CPVs are converted
into actual numbers or other percentages that have other meanings
such as Damage Status, Attack %, Initiative %, Toughness, etc.

Checks: Depending on the circumstance, the GM will ask a PC to 
make an Attribute Check to perform a certain action.  The GM 
determines which Attribute(s) are to be used for the check.  The 
GM usually requires an average percentage number, in the case 
when two or more Attributes are checked.  In most cases, the GM 
will also impose a penalty or bonus to the Check.  The Check itself 
is a percentile roll compared with the CPV of one or more 
Attributes (plus any modifiers imposed by the GM).  For example,
a characters attempts to hold himself from falling off a cliff for the 
next ten seconds, the GM might require a Strength CPV roll at a 
10% penalty.  If the character's Strength CPV is 43%, then the 
player must roll a (43%-10%) 33% or lower to succeed.  If a 
character has a capability that could be applied to the situation, 
the GM might allow that capability to apply to the Check.  Thus, 
if a character learn the Climbing skill at a 18% rate, the GM might 
allow half of the 18% to be used in this situation.  Thus, a 9% 
bonus could be gained to the Check.  

2a. Basic Characteristics:
Name: The character's name and aliases if any.

Real Age: The actual age of the character, if the character is not
of the human culture.

Human Age: The Human Age equivalent if the character is not human.

Age: As noted after each Attribute definition, Age has a range of
influence upon the attributes.  Only during the designated time
period noted for each attribute, the character has the ability to
use its Age to increase an attribute's Maximum Percentage Value
(MPV).  For every Human Age Equivalent year of the character, 10
percentage points can be distributed among the 26 attributes.  A 50
year old human for example would start with 500 percentage points
to distribute among the "available AGE range" attributes.  In other
words, a 25 year gains 250% to distribute, but could only use 200%
of the 250% for the Instinct Attribute, since Instinct has an Age
range from 0-20.  Therefore, the 25 year old could never again use
Age to increase the Instinct attribute past his 20th birthday.  As a 
character ages, the GM might also subtract points from certain 
attributes such as Strength and Health due to physical deterioration.  

Sex: Male, female, hermaphrodite, or other.

Height & Weight: The measured length of the character from head to
toe in inches (not feet or meters).  Conversion from CMs to inches
is: 2.54 CMs = 1 inch.  The total body weight of the character
measured in pounds.  The conversion from Kgs to pounds is: 2.2
pounds = 1 KG.

Total Body Fat%: The amount of fat that is on the character.  Human
males typically have a normal range from 12-18 percent.  Human
females typically have a normal range from 16-25%.  

Total Fat Weight: The fat-weight is determined by using the formula
[(Total Body Fat% x Total Body Weight)/100].  In game terms, the
Total Fat Weight can be thought of as extra carried weight that the
character has to haul around.

Movement % Bonus: This percentage is added on to the Movement
Attribute maximum percentage score.  It is determined by: (Height
in inches)/(TBF%).  The movement bonus increases with height
because it refers to the stride of the character (i.e., a giant
will cover more ground than a dwarf).

Weight Encumbrance %: This is a permanent penalty subtracted to a
character's Maximum Movement Attribute Percentage score.  The
percentage subtraction equals: [(Total Carried Weight (in pounds)
+ Total Fat Weight)x10]/[Height (in inches)].

3a. Levels and Achievements:
A character can use a Level to increase any attribute by 1%.  At
each Level, a character therefore earns a 1% bonus.  The bonus
percentage can be applied to any attribute.  Players will often
roleplay their characters between the 1-1000 Level range during
typical Adventure Campaigns.  A Level also adds directly to the
character's Maximum Damage Status.  GM's often have characters
start at a Level equal to the Human Age of the character.

There is a constant rate at which a Level is gained based on four
Attributes of Focus, Xperience, Knowledge, and Work.  The Game
Master awards points known as Achievements.  For every 1000
Achievements, the character gains a Level.  When converted from
percentage to actual points, the four attributes of FOCS, XPER,
KNOW, and WORK reduces the number of Achievements needed to a lower
number needed to gain a level.  For instance, if the four
attributes add up to a total of 121 points, then only (1000-121)
879 Achievements are needed for each Level.  If all four attributes
had a MPV of 99%, then the best possible reduction would equal
(1000-396) 604 Achievements needed per Level.  These four
attributes, when tallied, equals the ART (or the Achievement
Reduction Total).  After the ART is subtracted from 1000, the
number needed per Level is called the Required Achievement Total
(RAT).  The CAT (Current Achievement Total) is the number of
Achievements that the character currently has earned in between one
Level to the next.

The Game Master should use his own judgment to weight how many
Achievements should be gained per game adventure.  Depending on
what transpires during the adventure, what foes were slain, the
amount of time that passes, and other such factors, the GM will
have to get a feel for how many points to award.  It is recommended
that no more than 1000 Levels are achieved by any character.  Thus,
characters beyond the 1000th Level should be considered one the
greatest heroes ever to walk the planet if not a god outright.  For
high-powered games, it is recommended that the 2000th Level mark is
never exceeded.  Since there are 26 attributes that start at 1% and
other factors such as Culture and Age can also give initial
percentage bonuses, a character would need to reach about 2500
Levels to maximize all of the attributes at 99%.  The Game Master
will find that the progression of Levels should be rated around
1000-3000 Achievements per typical adventure.  A poor adventure
might give about 500 Achievements while an exceptional adventure
might give 5000.

4a. Cultures and Professions:
Cultures: A culture is a product of its genetic, evolutionary
background and the cultural habits and dispositions it follows. 
Depending on its cultural background, a character might start with
bonus percentage points for specific attributes.  For instance, if
the culture is abnormally strong compared to other cultures in the
worldbook used, it might begin with an extra +5% to the Strength
Attribute.  If the culture is extremely good at climbing, it might
gain an initial +3% to the Balance attribute.  In all, all Cultures
within each worldbook should have equivalent net bonuses for
setting balance.  Cultures also have attribute caps that tell a
limit, if it is below 99%.  Every Culture should have many limits
on the maximum achievable attribute percentages.  Some caps might
be as harsh as 75% maximum or even lower.  The Cultural Maximum
percentage caps are the main statistically distinguishing features
from one culture to the next besides potential initial bonuses to
the attributes.  The GM that creates each culture might weigh the
penalty caps of some attributes with the initial bonuses of other
attributes.  The GM may also wish to define a set of capabilities
that a character can learn through its culture.

Professions: A profession offers a character a range of attributes
that a character can be trained in to gain new capabilities,
skills, abilities, and powers.  Professions should be created and
defined by the Game Master or another supplement.  For example, the
Sorcerer profession might educate its students in the attributes of
Focus, Judgment, Knowledge, Language, Observation, and Recovery. 
However, for each attribute that is designated for professional
training, the character must permanently add additional 10 points
to the RAT (Required Achievement Total).  Additionally,
Professional knowledge and training is not cheap.  Usually a
profession will require a character to help with the profession and
invest time, resources, and monetary value into it.  The GM should
be careful giving too much access to character concerning skills,
abilities, powers, etc. As a result, a GM should make it evident to
the players that some specific capabilities cannot be gained
without Professional instruction and a RAT investment into certain
attributes for specialty education.

5a. Capabilities:
As a character lives its life, it continues to learn new skills,
abilities, talents, and qualities.  Important facts, trials, and
characteristics should be written down on the character sheet.  The
educator, teacher, or trainer might be noted, and the time spend on
the capability should also be written down.  The Game Master will
then evaluate the capability and write its bonus percentage number. 
Most capabilities should not exceed 25%.  The following chart will
help the GM determine the level of training:

Capability              Current
Percentage              Rating                  Learned Experience
----------              ------                  ------------------
1-3%                    Beginner                Several days/weeks
4-6%                    Novice                  A few months
7-10%                   Intermediate            Several months
11-15%                  Proficient              A few years
16-20%                  Expert                  Several years
21-25%                  Master                  Many years

When the capability is attempted, the bonus will be added to a CPV
of an attribute (or an average CPV of several attributes) to give
the chance to try to perform the capability.  For example, a
character wishes to climb a tree and has previously been taught by
a master forester how to climb trees.  The character currently has
a bonus of +5% for climbing.  The GM would require a Current
Percentage Value check of an attribute (probably Balance) at the
time of climbing the tree.  When the character attempts to climb,
he will gain a +5% bonus.  Even with capability modifiers, a
character can never exceed 99%.  All characters have the ability to
train themselves in the desired capabilities if they have the
proper materials and resources, but at an extended time rate.  It
is possible that some desired capabilities might require an average
of two or more Attributes to perform like Horseback Riding, since
the skill is somewhat complex.

6a. Personality:
Each player gets to define his or her character.  There should not
be any strict system for personality type, since part of the fun of
roleplaying is to develop a character and get to know it.  Instead,
the player should write phrases that the character would commonly
say.  Also, it is recommended that the player defines at least five
words that best describe his or her character.  The player should
give a percentage to the word to know how strongly the character
obeys it.  For example, the character might choose the five words
as Good: 75%, Obsessive: 60%, Reliable: 70%, Pessimistic: 80%, and
Curious: 55%.  The words that describe the character should have
antonyms so a silent comparison can be made.


1b. Weapon Damage:
Weapons have four basic qualities for combat: 1). Length, 2).
Bluntness, 3). Damage Force, and 4). Penetration.  When a weapon
strikes, it will always have a Damage Force.  The Length is
calculated by the weapon's damaging part in inches (such as a blade
or axe head).  Thus, a sword with a 36 inch blade would have a
Length of 36.  Bluntness is calculated by the weight of the weapon
in pounds multiplied by ten.  A five pound sword has a Bluntness of

The Bluntness and Length values are added together for the weapon's
Damage Force.  Thus, a five pound sword 36 inches long has a Damage
Force of 86.  The Penetration value is equivalent to the sharpness
of the object.  If it is somewhat dull, it might have a Penetration
value of 10-20%, whereas a sharp sword might have a Penetration
value of 60-75%.  Only the sharpest, well-built, razor-sharp edges
or material substances would have a Penetration value over 90%. 
Since a blade gets dull with use, its Penetration value decreases
with time.  Even though its maximum value might be 63%, its current
Penetration might be far below the maximum.  The current
penetration percentage is multiplied in decimal format to the
weapon's Force value.  In other words, if a weapon has a Force of
86 and a Penetration of 35%, an additional 30 points of Damage will
be added; the weapon has a base damage capacity of 86+30 or 116
points.  Thus, weapons that are extremely heavy, pack a lot of
force, and can penetrate easily are the most deadly tools.  The
Game Master might want to subtract a percentage of Penetration each
time any weapon hits its target for realism.  If the weapon is
sharpened, it will gain back its Penetration percentage value.  The
GM may wish to also directly compare the Penetration percentage
with an Armor percentage to see if the weapon tore through the

2b. Weapon Attack Types:
Melee Weapons: A Melee weapon is an extension of the wielder's
limb, or is actually the limb itself inflicting the damage.  As a
result, the character's Strength figures into the normal damage
inflicted by the weapon.  The Strength Attribute percentage
directly adds to the damage.  Thus, if 100 points of Damage Force
is inflicted, and the character's Strength is 43%, then an extra 43
points of damage is added to the total damage.  The GM should allow
the character to learn skills that increase the Attack % and damage
capabilities of a particular weapon category.

Projectile weapons: These weapons are fired or thrown by the
character.  The part of the weapon (such as an arrow) that hits the
opponent reflects the Damage Force.  However, the part of the
weapon that fires a projectile will also have an additional damage
bonus based on its ability to fire or throw an object (such as the
strung tension of a bow which might add an additional +50 damage). 
A character's current Strength Attribute percentage also gives an
additional amount of damage, if the character throws an object. 
Weapons that are thrown are often limited in accuracy and distance
thrown by the weapon's weight and the strength of the character. 
However, fired projectiles often have a Penetration percentage
above 75%.  All projectile weapons have reduced accuracy the
farther the target is in distance.  The GM will give appropriate
modifiers at the time of the attack.  All Projectile Weapons have
a cumulative penalty for every "x" feet determined by the Game
Master.  For example, the GM might rate a close range to give no
penalty, short range to give a -10% Attack % penalty, medium range
at -20%, and far range at -30% or greater.  Finally, some types of
projectile weapons have an additional penalty for the loading time
of a projectile that directly adds a predetermined number of
seconds (besides the normally calculated WIP number described

3b. Initiative Sequence:
INITIATIVE %: (Average of Chance, Emotion, and Quickness).

The ten seconds in a round is rated at 100%.  Thus, each second is
10% of the round, while 1% of the round is 1/10th of a second. Thus,
combat takes place in a 10 second round.  An Initiative Difference
(ID) for each character (or the average Initiative % in each group)
is needed to be calculated at the time of the Initiative sequence.

All participants roll percentage dice for their initiative
percentages at the beginning of a Combat Round, unless one group is
first surprised (according to the GM's discretion).  Those that
successfully make their initiative percentage roll (by rolling
under their Initiative %) start first, and those that fail
calculate an "Initiative Difference."  For instance, Character A
has an Initiative % of 22 and Character B has an Initiative % of
30.  If Character A has an Initiative Roll of 62%, and Character B
rolls an 80%, then Character A would have an Initiative Difference
of 40%, while Character B would have an Initiative Difference of
50%.  In the event that the Initiative Roll is successful and
*LOWER* than the character's Initiative number, the character
begins immediately on the 0th second (with possible penalties based
on capabilities and weapons such as WIPs).  All IDs are rounded up
to the nearest 10%.

In other words, the Initiative percentage tells the second in which
the character starts taking action in Combat.  If a character has
an ID of 46%, the character would start on the 5th second (all
percentages are rounded up to the nearest 10%).  If a skill,
attack, or capability's first strike or attempt continues into
consecutive Rounds, a new Initiative Roll will not be needd.  For
example, if a spell caster requires 15 seconds of time to initially
cast a spell, the caster would not be required to make new
Initiative % rolls until the action is complete.  Likewise, if an
attack has a high calculated ID and WIP, the attacker might not get
to make the first attack until the next Round.

The Game Master will call out each second of the 10 second Combat,
stating from the 0th second.  In the circumstance when attackers go
on the same second, the person with the better Initiative
percentage number will obviously get to go first.  For instance, if
Character A has an Initiate % of 39 and Character B has an
Initiative % of 37, Character A edges Character B on the second
they both make the attack or action.  If both characters also have
the same Initiative %, the GM can say the attacks occur
simultaneously, or the GM can opt to have both sides roll a
percentage to see who edges the other.

ID within a Round:  It is possible for a character to also start a
new attack or action in the middle of a Round (especially in the
event that an attack or action continued into the following Round). 
To do this, the character must make a new Initiative % Roll and add
the current second of Combat to the outcome to determine the new
ID.  If the number is over nine, then the character must wait until
the following Round.

WIPs: On the moment that a character can react in a Round, many
things can be attempted.  The character may wish to use a skill or
capability.  The character may wish to talk or move.  In most
events, the character will attempt to attack.  When attacking with
a weapon, a penalty (in seconds) must add onto the time at which
the weapon will make its attack.  

The penalty is called the Weapon Initiative Penalty (WIP).  The
penalty is a number of seconds measured in percentage that gets
added to the ID.  The WIP equals 1/10th the Damage Force of the
weapon in percentage.  The WIP%s are always rounded up to the
nearest 10%.  If the Damage Force for a sword is 144, then the WIP
% equals 20% instead of 14% (or two seconds of combat time). 
However, the difference that was lost can be added to an Initiative
% for comparison if two or more attackers fight on the same second
of combat.  Thus, in the example above, the WIP is calculated to be
20% even though 1/10th of the Damage Force of 144 equals 14%.  The
difference between 20% and 14% is a 6% bonus for the character to
apply to the Initiative %.  In the event that the character has to
fight an opponent on the same second of Conflict, the extra 6% can
be added to the character's Initiative % for comparison with the
opponent's Initiative %.

Using the WIP: The WIP also tells a second by second time ratio
between one attack to the next.  If the WIP equals 10% (or one
second of time), then the weapon can be used to attack on every
other second after the first initial second it attempts to strike
a target in the round.  Thus, if the ID is 40% and the WIP is 10%,
the weapon's first strike of Combat would be 50% (or on the 5th
second).  Since the WIP is 10%, the weapon would also be able to
attempt an attack on the 7th and 9th second.  If the WIP is
extremely high, like 30%, then the character must wait three
seconds between one attack to the next.  In this way, the fastest
weapons have a WIP of 10% since a weapon must have at least a
Damage Force higher than zero and WIPs are rounded up to the
nearest 10% (or one second).  The largest weapons might have a WIP
of 30% or higher if they are heavy and long, but would not be able
to strike as often.  The additional weapons attacks cannot exceed
the 9th Combat second of the Round.  All other numbers beyond the
9th second are thrown out, since a new Initiative % Roll will be
needed for the next Round.

A Combat Round lasts a full ten seconds.  Even though a Combat
Round starts on the 0th second, it is only possible for an
attacking character to start on the 1st second because all WIP%s
are rounded up.  If a character does not attack and decides to take
another action instead, the character could conceivably start on
the 0th second (such as talking or moving).  Many actions might
also have penalties to start based on the capability of the
character.  For instance, if a character wishes to draw a sword
from a scabbard, the GM might impose an extra two second penalty. 
Thus, a Combat Round ends after the full 9th second.  At the moment
when the 10th second is reached, new Initiative % rolls are
required and the entire process starts over and over until combat
is resolved or ends by word of the GM.

4b. Attack Sequence:
ATTACK %: 2d10% + (Average percentage of Guile, Instinct,
Observation, Timing, and Yearning)

If the attacker successfully makes the Attack % Roll at an equal or
lower value than the Attack percentage, the Attack has a chance of
hitting its target.  The additional 2d10% is rolled on each attack
and determines the Chance Damage that is inflicted (See Chance
Damage).  Anytime a "10" is rolled, another 1d10 can be rolled to
add onto the Attack percentage (this process can occur
indefinitely), even though the initial 2d10% will also be used for
the Chance Damage.  It is also possible for characters to purchase
Attack skills for specific weapon categories that increase the
Attack % to a higher amount.  Finally, a character might learn a
specific weapon skill to increase the Attack % by some minor amount
when using it.

Optional Attack % bonus Rule: The GM might allow a player to hold
an attack to gain a better Attack %.  For every extra second that
the attack is held before it strikes, the character earns an extra
1d10% to the Attack Roll on any attack.  Thus, if a character's
weapon attack is suppose to fall on the 3rd second, but the
character holds it for another four seconds, the character will
make the attack on the 7th second and earn an extra 4d10% to the
Attack %.  This rule is limited by the Round.  An attack can not be
held beyond the 9th (last) second of any Round.

DEFENSE %: (Average percentage of Agility, Balance, Judgment,
Movement, and Zeal).

In the event that an opponent's attack percentage is successfully
made, the Attack % will be directly compared to the Defense %.  If
the Defense % is higher than the Attack %, the defender side-steps,
dodges, or parries the blow and does not receive any damage.  Each
Attack % can change (due to the 2d10%).  For example, if an Attack
% is calculated to be 52%, and the defender's Defense % is 48, the
defender will be hit.  It is possible for characters to purchase a
Defense skill to increase the Defense % to a higher number.

Level Ratio Differences: If two opponents are at a ratio difference
between Levels, the opponent with the higher level gains a 10%
bonus to the Attack and Defense percentages.  Also, the character
will inflict an extra 10% to the total damage with every point of
ratio difference.  Only the higher Level character's statistics
need to be adjusted.  If a PC has such an advantage, the GM should
not outright tell about the advantage until the combat scenario
actually describes the advantage.  Thus, if the ratio is 2:1 (one
character is at the 250th Level while the other character is at the
125th Level), then the character at the 250th Level gains an
additional 10% to the Attack and Defense percentage, and an extra
10% to the damage inflicted.

Ambidexterity: If a character becomes ambidextrous in a limb, the
less skilled limb will receive a -25% to attack and a -25% (or -3
second) initiative penalty with that arm with a beginner skill.  A
master might still receive a minus 5% to attack and a -5% (-1
second) initiative penalty with the less skilled limb.

Damage: Damage inflicted is a Total Value that combines the Damage
Force of the weapon with its Penetration percentage.  If the weapon
is melee or thrown, the Strength Attribute will also add in extra
damage.  Variable damage called "Chance Damage" also adds to the
Total Value.

Chance Damage: The rolled percentage number for the extra 2d10% of
the Attack % also modifies the damage stronger by adding additional
Chance Damage.  Chance Damage is a raw point value, not a
percentage.  The Chance Damage is added to the Damage Force and
Penetration number, and will only be inflicted if the Attack % roll
actually hits the defender.  The Total Damage increases in the
following way:

2d10% Roll:                   Additional Damage:
-----------                   ------------------
 *20%                         *Damage Glance.
12-19%                        No bonus. 
  11%                         Add 1d10x1 points.
  10%                         Add 1d10x2 points.
  09%                         Add 1d10x3 points.
  08%                         Add 1d10x4 points.
  07%                         Add 1d10x5 points.
  06%                         Add 1d10x10 points.
  05%                         Add 1d10x20 points.
  04%                         Add 1d10x30 points.
  03%                         Add 1d10x40 points.
  02%                         Add 1d10x50 points.

* Damage Glance: Chance damage is not inflicted to the opponent,
and the Total Damage is halved. It should also be noted that if 
the weight of the object causing Chance Damage is less than a pound, 
the Chance Damage will be reduced.  Thus, if a weapon weighs 0.7 
pounds, then the Chance Damage is multiplied by 0.7 for a lower total.

Thus, there are many types of damage that the GM and player should
understand which include the Damage Force (based on length and
weight of weapon), the Penetration %, a Strength damage for Melee
weapons, and the Chance Damage. 

DS (Damage Status): Damage subtracts points from a character's
Damage Status.  The maximum Damage Status equals: (Total of the
Vitality, Health, and Nourishment Attribute percentages, plus
Level).  Commonly, characters start with 25 or more DS points.  The
Damage Status can fall to zero points (not below), and has an
unlimited maximum.  See Death.

DR (Damage Recovery): The Recovery Attribute percentage tells a
rate at which wounds are healed according to the Game Master's
world.  Characters will be required to make Recovery Attribute
percentage checks to gain back a percentage of possible recovery
that the GM allows.  For example, if a character eats a healing
herb, the GM might say it heals back 100 points.  If the character
only has a 25% current Recovery Attribute, only 25 points will be
earned if the herb is eaten.  The GM should also remember that time
heals all.  Each day, the GM might wish to give some number of
points back to the Damage Status of all characters based on rest,
relaxation, sleep, and morale.

Unique Damage: If a character is poisoned or is bleeding, an amount
of damage is inflicted at a given rate.  An antitoxin or time would
be required for a poison to be diffused in the body.  The
application of pressure or closing the wounds shut would be needed
for bleeding.  Internal bleeding and organ damage requires time or
operation to cure.

Armor: Armor defends.  That's obvious.  Armor does not allow a
character to dodge.  It penalizes movement.  It can also be
damaged.  Armor is rated at a certain percentage Rank against the
Total Damage inflicted.  Thus, Armor minimizes the damage inflicted
to the character by a certain percentage.  Each time a damaging
blow is inflicted to the character, the Armor's Rank diminishes by
a point.  Armor that protects well against penetration and
bluntness often has a rank around 50% on average.  Armor that only
protects well against bluntness or only against penetration often
has a rank around 25%.  Hide or clothing often protects 10% of the
Total Damage on average.  A fully armored and shielded knight might
have a 75% reduction in Total Damage.  It is extremely rare to have
armor above 80% in reduction capability.  Once Armor has been
damaged, it can be repaired back up to its maximum Rank capacity. 
Finally, armor should have a bulk rating that gives a Current
Movement percentage (not a Maximum Movement % reduction) when
wearing it.

Armor example: Daxin buys a leather coat and pants.  Their combined
protection gives an Armor Rank of 22%.  On each damaging hit, the
armor subtracts 22% of the Total Damage inflicted to Daxin.  If 150
points of Damage are inflicted, Daxin takes 117 points to the
Damage Status instead of 150.  After being hit a dozen times, the
Armor Rank of the leather coat and pants is down to 10%.  But if
Daxin pays to have it repaired, the Rank would go back up to 22%
again.  If Daxin adds metal studs to the armor, the Maximum Rank
might increase to 27%.

Toughness#: Characters have an internal toughness that helps to
subtract damage after the Armor percentage diminishes the blow. 
The Toughness number equals the average of the character's Death,
Strength, and Unconsciousness Maximum Attribute Percentages
(converted into a number).  Taking the same example from the Armor
example above, if Daxin takes 117 points of damage instead of 150,
but also has a Toughness# of 17, then Daxin will only take (117-17)
100 points of damage to the Damage Status.

Hitting a location: The Game Master can use dice or his or her own
method or ruling to determine where an attack lands.  If the
location is important, the GM might roll a 1d10 and say that "1" is
the head, "2-4" is the shoulders and arms, "5-8" is the chest, back
or torso, and "9-10" is the leg area.

5b. Special Circumstances:
Unconsciousness: When a character is hit to the head, or is
currently under 10% of its maximum Damage Status number, a current
Unconscious % roll will be needed.  If the percentage roll fails,
the character will be knocked out for 1d10 seconds plus one
second for every 10 points of damage taken to the DS.

Death: In the event when a character reaches a zero Damage Status,
the character must make a current Death Attribute percentage check
on every future attack that causes damage (poison and bleeding
cause damage at a rate and therefore consecutive checks might be
required at each minute, hour, time period, etc).  In the event
that more damage points are inflicted past zero, the character's
Death Attribute percentage will be penalized by that amount. 
Therefore, if a character is currently at a zero Damage Status and
is inflicted with another 45 points of damage, the Death check will
be penalized -45% on that attack.  If the character's Death check
is successful, the character will not die and remain at a zero
Damage Status.  If it fails, the character dies.  For example, if
Nevnuth has a Damage Status of 240 points and is hit with 262
points of Damage, Nevnuth's Damage Status equals zero, and a Death
Attribute Percentage Check is required at a -22 (262-240) penalty.

6b. Huge Combats:
When more than 20 or more combatants are engaging in battle, the
standard RPG combat system will have a hard time handling the
paperwork of character sheets and the calculations.  As a result,
the GM may opt to adapt the RPG Chess system as a representation of
a huge battle between two forces.  The RPG War-simulated Chess game
is available from sord@earthlink.net and is published in the
Fractal Spectrum.  Go to http://home.earthlink.net/~sord/ for more
information and to view the game, SORD supplements, and other RPG

III. Formulas in RATIOS:
ART (Achievement Reduction Total) = [FOCS + KNOW + WORK + EXPR]
Attack % = 2d10% + [(GUIL + INST + OBSR + TMNG + YERN)/5]
Capability Check = [CPV + Bonus Capability %]
Damage Status, Maximum = [HLTH + NRSH + VTLY + Level]
Defense % = [(AGIL + BALN + JUDG + MOVE + ZEAL)/5]
Fat Weight = [Total Weight x TBF%]/100
Initiative % = (CHNC + EMOT + QCKN)/3
Initiative Difference = [Initiative % - Initiative % Roll]
Level = 1000 Achievements = [1% point for any Attribute]
Movement % Bonus = (Height)/(TBF%)
RAT (Required Achievement Total) = 1000 - ART
Toughness Number = (DETH + STRN + UNCN)/3
Weight Encumbrance % = [(Carried Weight + Fat Weight)x10]/[Height]

Appendix A: RATIOS Character Sheet
Player Name:
Campaign Name:
Player's Personal Information:

Character Name: 
Real Age:   (years)
Human Age:  (years)
Height: (inches)
Weight: (pounds)
Total Body Fat %:  %  
Fat Weight:  (pounds)  [TBF% x character Weight]/100
Movement Bonus:  %  [Height]/[TBF%]
Total Carried Weight:  (pounds)
Weight Encumbrance:  % [(Fat Weight + Carried Weight)x10]/[Height]

Character's Culture:
& Comments:

Character's Profession: 
& Comments:

----  ---   ---
----  ---   ---
----  ---   ---

Personality Description:

Experience and Achievements:
ART:  [F+K+W+X]
RAT:  [1000-ART]

The Combat System:
Initiative %:   %  [(C+E+Q)/3]
Attack %: 2d10%+   % [2d10%]+[(G+I+O+T+Y)/5]
Defense %:   %  [(A+B+J+M+Z)/5]
Maximum Damage Status:   [H+N+V+Levels]
Current Damage Status:   [H+N+V+Levels]-[Damage]
Maximum Armor Rating:   %
Current Armor Rating:   %
Toughness #:    [(D+S+U)/3]

Name of Weapon   Length   Blunt   DF#   Pene%   Damage   Cost
--------------   ------   -----   ---   -----   ------   ----

Carried Items, Wealth, etc.         Weight
---------------------------         ------

Capability Name         Bonus%      ATTR(s)/Description/Definition/etc.
---------------         ------      -----------------------------------

Character Background/Notes/etc.

This game was written by Scott J. Compton.  Copyright March 1997. 
All Rights Reserved.  You may distribute this game free on the
internet as long as the text is unaltered.